Reading Stages

  • Emergent Stage

    Emergent Stage
     
    EmergentText
    DRA Levels A-3  
    Approximate Grade Levels K-1
     
    In the emergent stage of reading development, the student will display many of the following behaviors:

              • Begin to be aware that print carries a message
              • Know some sounds and names of the letters of the alphabet
              • Start to display directional movement (Left to right; top to bottom; return sweep)
              • Begin to establish one to o
              • Depend heavily on picture clues
              • Recognize the difference between a letter and a word
              • Begin to use pattern and repetition of text to read
              • Use some letter sounds (beginning / ending)
              • Begin to use known, high frequency words to monitor reading
              • Respond to texts by linking meaning with their own experience

    Early / Developing Stage

    Developing Stage
     
    Early / Developmental Text
    DRA Levels 4-12
    Approximate Grade Levels K-1

    In the early/developing stage of reading development, the student will display many of the following behaviors:

              • Have good control of early reading strategies (directionality; one to one word matching; locating known words)
              • Rely less on pictures and use more information from print
              • Begin to build a core of high-frequency words known automatically
              • Read familiar text with some phrasing and fluency
              • Start to attend to punctuation while reading
              • Read using more than one source of information
              • Begin to monitor own reading and self correct
              • Use phonetic clues to decode (initial-final sounds; simple chunks)
              • Begin to engage in discussions about what is read
              • Enjoy read aloud selections and participates in retell of story

    Transitional / Nearly Fluent Stage

    Nearly Fluent Stage
     
    Transitional / Fluent Text
    DRA Levels 14-28
    Approximate Grade Levels 1-2

    In the transitional/near fluent stage of reading development, the student will display many of the following behaviors:

              • Use multiple sources of information (meaning; language structure; visual/graphophonic) and a variety of strategies (check; monitor; search; predict; confirm; self correct) to problem solve while reading
              • Make predictions and confirm or revise them while reading
              • Recognize the importance of monitoring reading for understanding
              • Use familiar parts of words (beginning, middle, end) to problem-solve unknown words
              • Know a large core of high frequency words automatically
              • Read many punctuation marks appropriately
              • Read most texts with phrasing and fluency
              • Begin to read a greater variety of longer and more complex texts (fictional and informational)
              • Attend more to story structure and literary language
              • Engage in discussions about what is read
              • Begin to self select stories for enjoyment of reading
              • Begin to identify details from the text to support ideas in discussions

    Fluent Stage

    Fluent Stage
     
    Fluent Readers
    DRA Levels 30+
    Approximate Grade Levels 3-4

    In the fluent stage of reading development, the student will display many of the following behaviors:


              • Continue to use multiple sources of information (meaning; language structure; visual/graphophonic) and a variety of strategies (check; monitor; search; predict; confirm; self correct) to problem solve while reading
              • Read with increased fluency, prosody, and expression
              • Read silently for a sustained period while maintaining meaning
              • Read a wide variety of genre with longer,  more complex texts (fictional and informational)
              • Understand literary elements of story structure and literary language
              • Identify main idea with supporting details 
              • Respond in writing to support ideas
              • Develop an understanding of new vocabulary 
              • Enjoys reading independently
              • Use reading resources and text features to locate information